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Characteristic Analysis of Closed-Die Forging

What is closed die forging?

Closed die forging is a type of forging process in which the dies move towards each other, encompassing the entire or part of the workpiece. The heated raw material, close to the shape or size of the finished forged piece, is placed in the lower die. The shape of the forged piece is negative and inserted into the upper or lower die. The impact of the upper die on the raw material from above shapes it into the desired forging shape.

Characteristics of closed die forging

Compared with open die forging, closed die forging has the following characteristics:

1. High metal utilization rate: Closed die forging produces little or no metal flash, and the forging inclination angle is generally 1°-3° or even no inclination angle, which can increase the metal utilization rate from 25%-70% to 50%-85%.

2. High forging quality: The forged pieces produced by closed die forging are very close to or even identical to the finished products in shape, with the metal fiber flowing completely with the shape. Deformed metal flows in the three-dimensional stress state, which is conducive to improving the plasticity of the metal material and effectively preventing the occurrence of loose tissue inside the forged pieces, resulting in higher mechanical performance.

In addition, since there is no metal flash, there is no fiber exposed due to cutting, which is advantageous for materials and parts exposed to stress corrosion.

3. Save machining costs: closed die forging parts have small tolerances and no residual flash left when cutting, thus effectively reducing subsequent machining time, reducing machine tool and tool consumption, and saving machining costs.

4. Lower mold life of closed die forging molds: For some small forgings, whether it is integral concave mold closed die forging or detachable concave mold closed die forging (complex-shaped forgings), the heat absorption and dissipation of molds during closed die forging is basically balanced, and the mold life is higher than or at least equal to that of open-die forging molds. However, for some medium or large forgings, the mold temperature rises quickly and wears out quickly during closed die forging, so the mold life is generally lower than that of open-die forging molds.

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